EMC FLEX BLOG A site dedicated to Automotive EMC Testing for Electronic Modules

RF Boundary in automotive EMC for electronic components

RF Boundary is the element of an EMC test setup that determines what part of the harness and/or&nbsp

RF Boundary is the element of an EMC test setup that determines what part of the harness and/or peripherals is included in the RF environment and what is excluded. It may consist of, for example, ANs, BANs, filter feed-through pins, RF absorber coated wire and/or RF shielding.

 

RF Boundary is also an RF-test-system implementation within which circulating RF currents are confined

 

  • to the intended path between the DUT port(s) under test and the RF-generator output port, in the case of immunity measurements (ISO 11452-2, ISO 11452-4, ISO 1145-9), and
  • to the intended path between the DUT port(s) under test and the measuring apparatus input port, in the case of emissions measurement (CISPR 25),

 

and outside of which stray RF fields are minimized.

 

The boundary is maintained by insertion of BANs, shielded enclosures, and/or decoupling or filter circuits. The ideal RF boundary replicates the circuitry of the device connected to DUT in vehicle.

The standard test harness lenght for automotive EMC electronic components is (1700mm -0mm / +300mm). This 1.7m test harness runs between the DUT and the Load Simulator (Shielded Enclosure) that plays the role of RF Boundary.

 

If the Load Simulator enclosure does not include all DUT loads and activation/monitoring support equipment, additional support devices may be placed directly on the ground plane. The connection of additional devices to LS enclosure must be done via short wiring running on the ground plane.

 

Testing at subsystem level is preferable to any simulation. Whenever possible, use production intent representative loads.

 

Running long coax cables directly from DUT outside the chamber via SMA bulk filter panel would violate the 1.7m test harness length rule invalidating the test result. Ideally is to use Fiber Optic to exchange data with devices placed outside the test chamber.

 

Running long coax cables between Load Simulator and a support device placed outside the chamber is acceptable as long as the I/O line in question is not just an extension from DUT without proper RF boundary at the end of maximum 2-meter length of standard test harness.

 

It is critical to use the test harness length as defined by CISPR-25, ISO 11452-2, ISO 11452-4, and ISO 11452-9 to achieve valid compliance for your product. The length of the test harness as well as the grounding method (remote vs local) can result in different RF emissions level. Longer the test harness, higher RF emissions above 100 MHz due to its resonance pattern. The local grounding would show less magnitude variation across resonance peaks above 100MHz.

 

Christian Rosu

2022-02-20

 

CISPR 25 Conducted Emissions Current (CEI) Grounding Scheme

An incorrect DUT grounding scheme can easily make the difference between compliance and non-complian

An incorrect DUT grounding scheme can easily make the difference between compliance and non-compliance to CISPR 25 CEI limits. Sometimes we have to evaluate CEI from two modules, one used as DUT and the other one used as DUT's load (e.g. Module #1 is a PWM maker while Module #2 is an LEDs Lamp).

 

Christian Rosu, 2021-06-09

CISPR25 Conduct Emissions Current Grounding Scheme

A few remarks on correct Load Simulator configuration for CISPR 25 Conducted Emissions Current test

A few remarks on correct Load Simulator configuration for CISPR 25 Conducted Emissions Current test method.

First of all you have to show the LISN in your EMC Test Plan block diagrams. The way the LS is connected is not identical for each CISPR 25 test method. I will never use a Load Simulator unless is no other way around or I would want to turn it into a RF filter box. Examples of CEI good and bad setups are shown below:

CEI WRONG CONFIGURATION

 

CEI GOOD CONFIGURATION

To clarify how a PWM maker is connected:

From EMC compliance perspective the goal is to avoid as much as possible common line impedances:

 

Christian Rosu

2021-04-13

Common Impedance Coupling, Common Power Supply

15. December 2020 17:01 by Christian in Grounding, Noise Coupling, Troubleshooting
When two circuits share a common ground, the ground voltage of each one is affected by the ground cu

See Ground Return & Common Impedance Coupling

When two circuits share a common ground, the ground voltage of each one is affected by the ground current of the other circuit.

When two circuits share a common power supply, current drawn by one circuit affects the voltage at the other circuit.

 

Differential Mode Current vs Common Mode Current (Transmission Lines)

15. December 2020 12:14 by Christian in EMC/EMI, Noise Coupling, Troubleshooting
Differential Mode Configuration Assuming 1A is propagated from the source to the load usin

See Ground Return & Common Impedance Coupling

Differential Mode Configuration

Assuming 1A is propagated from the source to the load using I1 to represent the current flow. The 1A current must return to the source represented by I2. If I1 = I2 then we have a perfectly balanced transmission line system, no loss in the network.
The EM filed that exists in the outgoing path will couple inductively to the RF return path (AC transmission while DC will always travel in the lowest rsistance path I2). Magnetic flux between these two transmission lines will cancel each other out, being of equal value and opposite in dirrection. Assuming that the spacing between opposite conductors is very small, there should be no radiated emissions. Differential-mode radiation is caused by the flow of RF current loops within a system 's structure.
Common Mode Configuration
Assuming tht 50% of the transmitted current is consumed within the load, it leaves 50% of current that must be returned to its source.  The Kirchhoff's Law states that the sum of all currents withinn a transmission line must equal zero.We have 50% loss. 
I'2 represents the a virtual return path through free space or metallic interconnect. Not all desired return current will flow in I2 due to inductance or loss in transmission line. The remaining of the desired return current will flow in I'2. A negative current flow will exist in I2, travelling in opposite direction to satisfy Ampere's Law. The undesired (negative) current flow in I2 is that portion that contributes to common-mode currents.
Common mode radiation results from unintentional voltage drops caused by a circuit rising above the 0V reference.
Cables connected to the affected reference system will act as dipole antenna when stimulated with a voltage source.
The only solution to resolve CM radiation is reducing the common path impedance for  the return current.
 
 
 
The total magnitude of imbalance in a DM transmission line system becomes the the total magnitude of CM current.
RF loss within a system or transmission line will result in CM energy, and this CM current is the reason for EMI problems.